Earlier this month, the Haiku project released the second beta of its namesake operating system, Haiku.
Haiku is the reimagining of a particularly ambitious, forward-looking operating system from 1995—Be, Inc.'s BeOS. BeOS was developed to take advantage of Symmetrical Multi-Processing (SMP) hardware using techniques we take for granted today—kernel-scheduled pre-emptive multitasking, ubiquitous multithreading, and BFS—a 64-bit journaling filesystem of its very own.
BeOS—the Apple OS that never quite was
Most of those who remember BeOS remember it for its failed bid to become Apple's premiere operating system. The platform was created by Jean Louis Gassée, a former Apple executive who wanted to continue work he had done on the discontinued Apple Jaguar project. In its early days, Be developed the machine for its own hardware, called the BeBox—a system with two AT&T Hobbit processors on which BeOS' unrivaled attention to SMP efficiency could shine.
Unfortunately for Be, AT&T discontinued the Hobbit in 1994—a move that perhaps should have been anticipated by Gassée, given that Apple itself had originally approached AT&T to develop the Hobbit, but then abandoned it due to it being "rife with bugs… and overpriced." In the scramble to find a new hardware platform, Be moved to PowerPC architecture. The company moved through eight hardware revisions in two years before giving up on designing its own hardware.
The next step for BeOS was Apple's own Common Hardware Reference Platform. Apple was in dire need of a refresh for the aging MacOS Classic, and briefly the tech industry was abuzz with the possibility that BeOS would be the next Apple operating system—but Gassée and Apple's then-CEO Gil Amelio couldn't agree on a price. Gassée demanded $300 million, but Amelio wouldn't go higher than $125 million. In the wake of the stalled negotiations, Apple's board decided to bring founder Steve Jobs back into the fold by purchasing his NeXT, instead.
This was the beginning of the end for BeOS, which went through another four years looking for a home—distributed first on Power Computing's Mac clones, then Intel x86 computers, and even a free, stripped down "Personal Edition" intended to drum up consumer interest, which could be run atop either Microsoft Windows or Linux. In 2001, the rights to BeOS were sold off to Palm, largely ending the original BeOS saga.
Although Be, Inc sold the rights to BeOS to Palm in 2001, its community had no intention of abandoning the project—it founded an OpenBeOS project the same year. In 2004, Palm sent a notification of trademark infringement regarding the name, and the project renamed itself Haiku.
Back to the present: Installing Haiku R1/Beta 2
In June 2020—nineteen years after OpenBeOS was born, and sixteen after its rename to Haiku—the project released its second beta distribution. The project still adheres to backward application compatibility with 1990s BeOS—although only in its 32-bit version, which I did not test.
Haiku's installer is easy to use, if you know what you're doing—but that caveat is an important one. There's a live desktop option, but I dove straight into the full hardware install in a new Haiku VM, and it was a bit frustrating.
Disk partitioning is both necessary and entirely manual. The installer tells you it will need "at least one partition [initialized] with the Be File System" but otherwise leaves you alone. Inside the partition manager, there are no hints about "Intel Partition Map" vs "GUID Partition Map"—or whether a GUID Partition Map will also need a BIOS Boot Partition.
It's also not clear that creating a "Be File System" here really just means setting a Type ID on a raw partition and isn't sufficient to let the installation continue. After creating the partition, you must then select it and format it—the installer won't do it for you and won't warn you why the installation can't continue, either.
Once I'd figured that out, I went with a GUID partition scheme, created a 1000MiB BIOS Boot partition, allocated the rest of my 32GiB virtual drive to a BFS partition, and formatted it. The main installer stopped complaining that it couldn't find a valid installation target, and the rest of the installation was over with in a minute or less.
Listing image by Jim Salter
First impressions, and the WebPositive browser
There is a distinct, retrofuturistic air of the late 1990s about Haiku. If you gave an artist who had never seen a modern operating system four hours to spend with Windows NT 3.51, then asked them to imagine this operating system ten years in the future, you could end up with something that looks and feels very much like Haiku.
The desktop interface is primitive and funky, but—much like the OS' boot time—it's extremely snappy. This strengthened my feeling of deja vu—it reminded me strongly of removing Windows 98 from a friend's underpowered Packard Bell and installing Windows 3.11 for Workgroups in its place. Sure, it was uglier and less user-friendly afterwards—but the little Pentium 75 without enough RAM to comfortably run Windows 98 just flew on the much older 3.11.
Unfortunately, Haiku also feels very buggy and half-finished. Staring at the desktop on first boot, it's not immediately apparent what will function as a launcher. Double-clicking "Quick Tour" brings up twenty or so pages of Haiku's "features and peculiarities." But it loaded in what was clearly a Web browser—so I typed arstechnica.com into the address bar, and off I went.
Trying to browse the Internet in WebPositive, the Haiku default browser, is a frustrating experience. It failed to render several elements on the Ars front page, and that was the best experience I had with it—when I tried to move on to YouTube, the entire display server crashed. A forced reboot later, I tried Vimeo instead—which mostly worked but threw an obnoxious, page-filling SSL error. Moving on to Gmail, WebPositive did manage to login—but crashed while trying to render the actual mailbox.
The best thing about this experience was the application crash dialog, which pops up whenever something grenades itself. One click saves a full crash log to the desktop, and it's quite detailed. Unfortunately, any attempt to browse the Web means you'll be seeing a lot of that dialog—very few browsers are available for Haiku, and none is entirely functional.
Installing software in Haiku
Haiku has its own graphical package manager, called Haiku Depot. It's extremely reminiscent of FreeBSD's graphical interface to its own
pkg management tool—old-school gray dialogs, organized loosely into overall categories, packed chock-full of application names you've likely never heard of, with a few better-known exceptions popping up here and there.
I was very disappointed with WebPositive's failure to render nearly any site properly, so I selected Haiku's "Internet and Network" category. Inside, I found two additional browsers—NetSurf, and Otter Browser. A more careful look showed that this was a filtered view, showing featured packages only.
Selecting "all packages" instead didn't make much difference—this exposed an additional pair of terminal-based options similar to Lynx and one more graphical browser called "Dooble." Neither Firefox nor Chromium was available.
Web, web everywhere, and nary a browser that works
I tried every graphical Web browser offered in Haiku—the default system-installed WebPositive, the Haiku Depot featured apps Otter Browser and NetSurf, and the non-featured app "Dooble." None was capable of correctly rendering even a small selection of modern must-have sites.
WebPositive couldn't render the Ars front page correctly. The next browser we tried, Otter, did a better job with Ars—but Otter failed to render video in either YouTube or Vimeo.
NetSurf, the remaining "featured" Web browser, is the most broken of the lot. It turned the Ars front page into a quasi-random jumble of images and CSS elements, failed to render Vimeo at all, and turned YouTube into a never-ending selection of black boxes and gray bars, with no text visible at all.
At this point, I left the Haiku VM and hit the Internet in a modern browser, hoping to find a way to get Firefox or Chromium running. This appeared to be a fool's errand—the closest thing I found was a 2016 forum thread declaring that "we have had Bezilla for a long time" and, based on Firefox 1.8, it was getting rather stale. Coming back to the Haiku VM and Haiku Depot, I looked for a Bezilla package, but it seems to have been abandoned without a trace.
The modern Web, clearly, is effectively inaccessible from Haiku.
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BLACKBERRY PHONES TO STOP WORKING AS COMPANY FINALLY PULLS PLUG
independent– BlackBerry phones, once the height of mobile devices, are finally being shut off.
The company announced that services for the older devices will be brought to an end on 4 January. At that point, they will “no longer reliably function”, BlackBerry said, and will be unable to get data, texts or make phone calls, including to emergency numbers.
It is just the latest in a series of endings for the once equally beloved and hated name, which helped drive the mobile revolution and was at the forefront of business and technology. While the BlackBerry has been declared dead a number of times before, the latest move means that the phones themselves will actually stop working.
In 2016, after its phones had been replaced largely by smartphones from Apple and others, BlackBerry announced that it had transitioned away from phones and into making software and that it would focus on providing security tools to companies and governments. It has sold the BlackBerry brand to other companies, who have created devices bearing the name.
In 2020, BlackBerry said that with that move complete, it would start taking offline the legacy services that allowed those old devices to keep working. Phones that run any of BlackBerry’s own operating systems – BlackBerry 7.1 OS and earlier, BlackBerry 10 software – were given an “end of life or termination date” at the start of 2022.
Next week, that date will finally arrive and support will end. While the phones will still be able to perform some of their functions without BlackBerry’s services, many of their central features will be removed, and the phones will not work reliably.
BlackBerry said the support was being removed in recognition of the fact that it now works in security software and that the old products did not reflect its business. It had prolonged support in the years since that transition “as an expression of thanks to our loyal partners and customers”, it said.
70 Jupiter-sized ‘rogue planets’ discovered in our galaxy
independent– A team of astronomers discovered at least 70 ‘rogue’ planets in our galaxy, the largest collection ever found to date.
While conventional planets (like those in our Solar System) orbit a star, rogue planets roam freely without travelling around a nearby star.
“We did not know how many to expect and are excited to have found so many,” said Núria Miret-Roig, an astronomer at the Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Bordeaux.
It would usually be impossible to detect rogue planets because they are hard to spot far from a star’s light. One key fact of their existence made them visible: these planets still give off enough heat to glow millions of years after their creation, making them visible to powerful telescopes.
This heat allowed the 70 planets – each with masses close to that of Jupiter – to be discovered in the Scorpius and Ophiuchus constellations.
“We measured the tiny motions, the colours and luminosities of tens of millions of sources in a large area of the sky,” explained Ms Miret-Roig. “These measurements allowed us to securely identify the faintest objects in this region, the rogue planets.”
The astronomers’ study suggests there could be many more elusive, starless planets yet to be discovered, numbering in the billions in the Milky Way alone.
By studying these planets, astronomers believe they could unlock clues as to how the mysterious objects come to be. It is hypothesised they are generated from the collapse of gas clouds too small to create stars, but they could also have been ejected from a parent system.
“These objects are extremely faint and little can be done to study them with current facilities,” says Hervé Bouy, another astronomer at the Laboratoire d’Astrophysique. “The ELT [Extremely Large Telescope, currently being built in Chile] will be absolutely crucial to gathering more information about most of the rogue planets we have found.”
The exact number of rogue planets discovered is vague, because the observations made by the researchers do not allow them to measure the mass of the objects. Bodies with a mass 13 times greater than that of Jupiter are unlikely to be planets, but relying on brightness makes this figure unclear.
The brightness of these objects is also related to age, as the older the planet is the dimmer it will be. The brightest objects in the sample could have a mass greater than the upper limit but be older and therefore dimmer. Researchers estimate there could be as many as 100 more planets yet to be discovered because of this uncertainty.
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