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Researchers demonstrate in-chip water cooling

Enlarge / A hierarchy of channels keeps coolant flowing without requiring high pressures.
As desktop..



Enlarge / A hierarchy of channels keeps coolant flowing without requiring high pressures.

As desktop processors were first crossing the Gigahertz level, it seemed for a while that there was nowhere to go but up. But clock speed progress eventually ground to a halt, not because of anything to do with the speed itself but rather because of the power requirements and the heat all that power generated. Even with the now-common fans and massive heatsinks, along with some sporadic water cooling, heat remains a limiting factor that often throttles current processors.

Part of the problem with liquid cooling solutions is that they're limited by having to get the heat out of the chip and into the water in the first place. That's led some researchers to consider running the liquid through the chip itself. Now, some researchers from Switzerland have designed the chip and cooling system as a single unit, with on-chip liquid channels placed next to the hottest parts of the chip. The results are an impressive boost in heat-limited performance.

Feeling the heat

Part of our issue with getting heat out of a chip is that it usually involves multiple connections: from the chip to the chip packaging and the chip packaging to a heat sink. While steps can be made to improve these connections, there's an inefficiency to them, which adds up to limit the heat we can extract from the chip. This is true for the liquid cooling systems in current use, which use the liquid to replace the metal heat sink. While it might be possible to place the chip directly into a heat-conductive liquid, that liquid has to be an insulator and not undergo any chemical reactions with electronics components—both hurdles that water fails to clear.

There have been a number of demonstrations of on-chip liquid cooling. These typically involve a system where a device with a set of liquid channels is fused onto a chip, and a system pumps fluid through it. This can get heat off the chip, and initial implementations have found that there's a bit of a trade-off: it takes more power to pump the water through these channels than you extract from the processor. That power isn't used at the site where heat is an issue, so it doesn't get in the way of the heat dissipation, but it does cut into the energy efficiency of the system.

The new research builds upon these ideas to boost the efficiency of on-chip cooling systems. And the researchers involved demonstrate that it works using a power-converting chip that otherwise would see the performance reduced by the heat.

Etching a cooling system

Semiconductors used for power conversion tasks are typically not silicon. Instead, gallium nitride (GaN) is generally the choice, since it handles current better and reaches high frequencies. To maintain compatibility with existing fabrication approaches, however, most GaN devices are built on top of a silicon wafer, which simply provides physical support rather than contributing to the circuitry. To the researchers, the silicon provided an opportunity: we known how to control its structure at an extremely fine scale, which could be used to place coolant channels right up against the surface of the GaN circuitry.

The construction process is rather elaborate. Initially, extremely thin slits are cut through the GaN and into the underlying silicon. Then, an etching process that only affects silicon is used to widen these into channels, with the original gaps through the GaN layer sealed off with copper, which enhances the heat conduction into the water. Beneath these channels is a set of alternating passages that act as feeds and sinks. Cold water comes in via a feed, circulates up through the channel where it picks up heat, and then is drawn out through a neighboring sink.

The researchers arrange things so that the hottest parts of the GaN portion of the device are placed in close proximity to one of the channels, allowing a more efficient extraction of heat. A lot of the papers involve testing out different geometries of elements like the channel width and spacing. Throughout, the researchers tested the amount of energy required to force water through the system, which also put another constraint on the geometry. The best design they found is able to handle heat fluxes up to 1,700 watts per square centimeter while limiting the temperature rise of the chip to 60°C.

An animated diagram of how the water flows through the system.

To turn this into research into a useable device, the team used a thick double-sided adhesive layer and cut channels into that with a laser; the chip was then stuck down onto this adhesive. Water was pumped into the adhesive, from which it would flow into the chip. All of this was packaged onto a standard electronic board, with both leads for connecting it to power sources and valves that were used to feed the system water.

With the system in operation, tempRead More – Source

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Spain’s competition watchdog opens disciplinary case against Google



Spain’s competition watchdog, the ‘Comisión Nacional de los Mercados y la Competencia’ (CNMC) has opened a disciplinary case against Google for alleged anti-competitive practices affecting publishers and Spanish news agencies, it said in a statement on Tuesday.

CNMC said it was investigating whether Google had abused its dominant position in the Spanish market. The proceedings involve Google LLC, Google Ireland Ltd, Google Spain, SL., and the overall parent company Alphabet Inc.

The alleged practices also include distorting free competition and imposing unfair conditions on press publishers and Spanish news agencies, CNMC said.

The watchdog’s investigation was sparked by a complaint from the Spanish Reproduction Rights Centre (CEDRO).

CNMC will investigate the case over the next 18 months, during which both sides can present their arguments.

According to RTVE, Spain’s national broadcaster, Google will analyse the file and respond to the ‘doubts’ of the CNMC. They said that Google ‘works constructively with publishers in Spain and Europe’ and would ‘need time to analyse the details … as the nature of the claims is still not clear’.

It is not the first action by the Spanish competition regulator against Google, nor the first in which its dominant position in the media sector stands out. In 2021, CNMC already warned that this company and another technology giant, Amazon, monopolised 70% of internet advertising in Spain.

Other lawsuits in the Netherlands and the UK have previously accused the technology company of abusing its dominance in the digital advertising market to harm its competitors. France also fined Google in 2021 for not negotiating in good faith compensation for the media for using its news content.


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How does technology affect reading and writing?



Technology has dramatically changed the way we read and write in the 21st century. From e-books and online articles to social media and instant messaging, technology has made reading and writing more accessible and convenient. However, it has also brought about new challenges and concerns.

One of the biggest benefits of technology is the increased access to information. With just a few clicks, people can access an endless supply of books, articles, and other written materials from all over the world. This has made reading and writing more accessible for people who may not have had the opportunity to do so in the past. It has also allowed for greater collaboration, as people can now share their writing and receive feedback from a global audience.

Technology has also made writing and reading more interactive. Social media and blogs have made it possible for people to engage with written content in real-time, sharing their thoughts, opinions, and experiences with others. This has led to a more dynamic and engaged reading and writing community, with people able to communicate and connect with each other in new and meaningful ways.

However, there are also concerns about how technology is affecting our ability to read and write. One of the biggest concerns is the decline of attention span. With so much information available at our fingertips, it can be difficult to stay focused and absorb what we are reading. Many people find it difficult to concentrate on longer written works, and are instead drawn to shorter, more bite-sized pieces of content.

Additionally, technology has led to an increase in informal writing. The widespread use of text messaging and instant messaging has led to the widespread use of shorthand and abbreviations. This has created concerns about the impact it may have on people’s writing skills, as well as the way they communicate with others.

Another concern is the rise of “fake news.” With the ease of publishing content online, it has become increasingly difficult to differentiate between credible and unreliable sources. This has led to a decline in trust in the media, and has created a need for critical thinking and media literacy skills.

Despite these concerns, technology has also provided new opportunities for writing and reading. E-books and online platforms have made it easier for people to self-publish their work, giving them greater control over the distribution and promotion of their writing. This has created a more democratized publishing industry, and has made it possible for voices and perspectives that may have previously been excluded to be heard.

In conclusion, technology has had a profound impact on reading and writing. While there are certainly challenges and concerns, the increased access to information, the ability to connect and engage with others, and the opportunities for self-publishing have all made reading and writing more accessible and dynamic. As technology continues to evolve, it will be important to address the challenges it presents and embrace the opportunities it provides.

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How to measure human intelligence?



Measuring human intelligence is a complex task that has been attempted by many experts and researchers over the years. Intelligence is often defined as an individual’s ability to think, reason, and solve problems. However, this definition is not enough to capture all the aspects of intelligence. In this article, we will look at some of the ways that human intelligence can be measured and evaluated.

  1. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) Tests: IQ tests are the most commonly used method of measuring intelligence. They are designed to measure an individual’s ability to solve problems, think logically, and understand abstract concepts. The results of an IQ test are expressed as an IQ score, which is a number that represents a person’s intellectual abilities in comparison to the general population.
  2. Achievement Tests: Achievement tests are designed to evaluate an individual’s knowledge and skills in specific subjects such as mathematics, reading, or science. These tests can be a good indicator of a person’s intelligence in a particular subject area and are often used in schools and colleges to assess students’ abilities.
  3. Neuropsychological Tests: Neuropsychological tests are used to evaluate the functioning of the brain and nervous system. These tests can be used to diagnose neurological disorders, measure cognitive abilities, and determine the impact of injury or illness on a person’s cognitive abilities.
  4. Cognitive Ability Tests: Cognitive ability tests are designed to measure an individual’s mental abilities such as memory, reasoning, and problem-solving. These tests can be useful in determining a person’s potential for learning and development.
  5. Behavioral Assessment: Behavioral assessment involves evaluating an individual’s behavior, including their social skills, emotional regulation, and communication abilities. This type of assessment can be useful in identifying areas where an individual may need support or intervention.
  6. Performance-Based Tests: Performance-based tests are designed to measure an individual’s abilities in real-world tasks and activities. These tests can be useful in determining a person’s practical intelligence and can be used in a variety of settings, including schools, workplaces, and healthcare facilities.

It is important to note that no single method of measuring intelligence is perfect and each has its own strengths and limitations. Additionally, the results of intelligence tests can be influenced by many factors such as cultural background, education, and experience. As a result, it is important to use a variety of assessment methods to get a more comprehensive understanding of an individual’s intelligence.

In conclusion, measuring human intelligence is a complex task that involves evaluating a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and performance-based abilities. While intelligence tests can provide valuable information about a person’s intellectual abilities, it is important to use a variety of assessment methods to get a more comprehensive understanding of an individual’s intelligence. By using a combination of tests, experts and researchers can get a more complete picture of an individual’s intellectual abilities and potential for learning and development.

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