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Covid booster jab triggers immune response in days, not weeks, say scientists



independent– Those who receive a Covid booster jab can expect to mount an immune response in a matter of days – not weeks, scientists say.

The boosters have been shown to restore the body’s immunological defences against Omicron, which appears capable of infecting those who are double-jabbed.

While it takes up to two weeks to prime the immune system against Covid after a first dose, the effects of a booster jab start to be felt within two to three days, experts believe.

“The immunity generated after a booster jab will rise much quicker than the first immune response,” said Gary McLean, a professor in molecular immunology at London Metropolitan University.

That’s because crucial memory cells activated after the first dose will still be present in the body, Prof McLean explained, and therefore “do not require the two-week activation and instruction phase they initially go through”.

These memory cells – T and B – are responsible for hunting down infected cells and producing antibodies that stop the virus from gaining entry in the first place.

Their continuing presence means the immune system is on high alert and ready to spring back into action at the earliest sight of the virus, or anything that mimics it.

“That can then translate into boosted antibody levels and other increases in active T cells within days of the booster,” said Prof McLean. “It is likely that maximal immune activity is reached seven days after the booster.”

Professor Charles Bangham, an immunologist and co-director of the institute of infection at Imperial College London, said that in a secondary or subsequent immune response, T cells and antibodies should start to be detectable within “two to three days” of a booster.

The boosters appear to be 70 per cent effective against omicron infection – and are thought to offer even higher protection from hospitalisation and death – but scientists are concerned that the UK rollout won’t be able to keep up with the spread of the variant.

Doubling at a rate of every two days, Omicron has fuelled a sudden lift in national cases. On Thursday, 88,376 new Covid cases were reported, setting a new pandemic record for the second day running.

However, infections are thought to be running at far higher levels. The UK Health Security Agency said it expects there to be more than one million infections a day by the end of the month.

The government, meanwhile, has set the ambitious target of rolling out one million boosters a day to counter Omicron, and intends to have offered all eligible adults one by the close of the year. Some 745,183 third doses were given on Thursday, bringing the national total to 25.4 million.

Recent research from Israel suggests that rates of infection, severe disease and death from Delta were reduced after three to seven days post-boost – but reduced more after 12 days post-boost – when using the Pfizer vaccine for all three jabs.

The UK’s Cov-Boost study, which investigated the benefits of a booster jab among people who had received doses of the Pfizer or AstraZeneca vaccine, also pointed to an increased immune response by day seven.

“This ‘secondary immune response’ is more rapid than observed following the ‘priming’ course of vaccination, when the body takes 14 days or longer to ‘prime’ the antibody-producing B cells to produce antibody against the virus,” said Penny Ward, a visiting professor in pharmaceutical medicine at King’s College London.

“However when virus antigens [an immune-triggering structure] are ‘re-encountered’ – either by a boosting shot of vaccine or by exposure to infection – these cells react very rapidly to produce antibody more quickly.”


How Does COVID-19 Compare With Seasonal Influenza?




Despite the fact that COVID-19 and flu symptoms can be similar, the viruses are actually different. They are caused by different viruses that spread by coughing, sneezing, and touching other people.

While the flu is less harmful than COVID-19, both viruses have the potential to cause severe illness and even death. Fortunately, flu and COVID-19 are preventable with vaccination.

Flu symptoms may include a fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, and headache. People can also develop sinus infections, ear infections, and pneumonia. Unless the virus is very severe, most people recover in two weeks. However, if you develop a severe flu, you may need to go to the hospital. Some people may need to use a ventilator or get intravenous medications.

Both illnesses are characterized by the same symptoms, but COVID-19 is more dangerous. It may have more severe symptoms than the flu, such as a cough that lasts for months, a high fever, and a shortness of breath.

COVID-19 and flu are also different in their treatment. While both illnesses can be treated at home, severe cases require hospitalization and may need to be ventilated. COVID-19 may also be treated with supplemental oxygen and mechanical ventilation on a breathing machine.

Flu symptoms can last from one to four days, while COVID-19 symptoms can last for several weeks or months. The symptoms of flu may be less severe than COVID-19, but both illnesses can be very serious.

There are two different vaccines for COVID-19, and the vaccines are matched with the dominant strains of the virus. A booster shot may be required if you have not been vaccinated previously.

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Obesity Risks and Healthy Problems



Obesity is a complex health problem, which has many causes, including environmental, social, and personal factors. Individuals’ dietary patterns, physical activity, and stress levels may increase their risk of obesity. Lifestyle changes, such as incorporating more physical activity, may reduce the risk of obesity.

Obesity is a risk factor for many diseases. It can also make a person feel out of place or ashamed. It can even shorten a person’s life. People with obesity are at a higher risk of death than those with normal weight. Having an excess of body fat can increase the risk of heart disease and high blood pressure.

Excess weight can irritate the liver, which can lead to chronic inflammation and scarring. It can even cause liver failure. Losing weight and exercising regularly can help reverse the effects of fatty liver disease and keep it at bay. Other health problems associated with obesity include gallstones, which develop when bile becomes too backed up and forms a stone. The gallbladder is also enlarged in obese people, which makes gallstones more likely to form. In severe cases, gallstones can require surgical treatment and can be painful.

A number of studies have shown a direct association between excess body weight and coronary artery disease (CAD). The BMI-CAD Collaboration Investigators conducted a meta-analysis of twenty-one studies, involving over three hundred thousand people over a 16-year period. They found that those who were obese or overweight had an increased risk of developing the condition by 32 percent. Adjusting for other factors such as cholesterol level did not change these results.

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Symptoms and Treatments of Hypertension




Blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is a medical condition that causes a great deal of damage to the body. When the pressure is consistently high, it can lead to a number of medical conditions, including heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, and eye problems. When your blood pressure is higher than 120/80 mm Hg, it is considered hypertension. However, if you have a high pressure reading only occasionally, you may not be at risk of developing the condition.

Fortunately, there are ways to detect hypertension in its early stages, such as regular blood pressure screenings. Experts recommend that anyone over 40 have their blood pressure checked once a year. Those who have a family history of high blood pressure should have their readings more often.

High blood pressure can affect several organs, including the heart, the kidneys, the eyes, and the brain. Proper management of your blood pressure can significantly reduce your risk of developing serious health problems. It may even prevent you from suffering from a heart attack, which is when the heart stops receiving blood. This causes the heart muscle to die without oxygen. In some cases, hypertension can even lead to heart failure, which can lead to death.

Treatment for hypertension focuses on lowering your blood pressure. You can reduce your blood pressure with lifestyle changes and medication. Small changes in your habits can reduce your blood pressure by 10 to 20 mmHg. However, it is important to make sure that you take your blood pressure medication as prescribed by your healthcare provider. If you stop taking your medication, you risk developing heart disease or stroke.

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